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  • 부평출장맛사지⇋예약╈부평불광동 마사지『부평방콕 마사지』0﹝부평베이징 마사지﹞❣부평다낭 마사지 추천☀부평해외 안마방シ부평출장 보증금☣부평안마방 분수╬ 부평안마방 항문

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    구미출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    부평출장맛사지┷출장부르는법⇔부평불광동 마사지『부평안마방 초이스 토렌트』☪﹝부평신림 안마방﹞♫부평타이마사지 불법♪부평의정부 안마방]부평오류동 마사지☃부평안마방 퇴폐┱부평가산 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 원주역삼 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    부평출장맛사지★예약⇖부평불광동 마사지『부평모텔 걸』⇡﹝부평팔 마사지﹞﹃부평마사지 사진┲부평근육 마사지►부평부산 하단 출장→부평서울 출장 마사지⇩부평왕십리 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    부평출장맛사지♣예약┉부평불광동 마사지『부평시흥동 안마방』☁﹝부평마사지 대딸﹞╄부평로미 마사지↟부평크라운제이 안마방╩부평포천 마사지↢부평안마방 노출➥부평전주 안마방 가격

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    부평출장맛사지▶24시출장샵◐부평불광동 마사지『부평청주 안마방 가격』✔﹝부평안마방 대기﹞░부평출장 만남 대행▶부평림프 마사지♗부평마곡 마사지┨부평마송 여관╞부평출장오쓰피걸

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 서산만남 카톡 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    부평출장맛사지╚출장부르는법♦부평불광동 마사지『부평오십견 마사지』☎﹝부평장안동 안마방﹞☭부평일본야동 마사지α부평아프리카 마사지┭부평마사지 할인┍부평남성전용마사지♧부평얼굴 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대전출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    부평출장맛사지부평태국 마사지 가격

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    부평출장맛사지◐예약♛부평불광동 마사지『부평천안 오피스』ღ﹝부평새로운 안마방 아가씨﹞⇃부평마사지↪부평서울 안마방⇟부평지압 나무위키╉부평마사지방♘부평마사지 하다가

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 충청남도강원도 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    철원남성전용마사지 군산출장샵 울진성내동 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    부평출장맛사지✕출장부르는법γ부평불광동 마사지『부평원주 마사지』◦﹝부평대학동 마사지﹞▬부평출장 보증금⇛부평신원동 마사지┣부평대구 마사지 추천コ부평고양이 마사지❉부평러시아 오피 후기

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 군포태국 마사지 불법 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    부평출장맛사지⇪24시출장샵∷부평불광동 마사지『부평상해 마사지』✏﹝부평안마방 성병﹞∴부평출장안마↸부평유흥 마사지✗부평지행 안마방┆부평안마▩부평러시아 밤문화

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 목포출장샵 .

    서울성신여대 마사지
    부평50대 안마방 서울출장샵 영동안산 조건 만남
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    부평출장맛사지☁출장부르는법•부평불광동 마사지『부평군산 모텔 가격』╃﹝부평전립선 마사지 야동﹞♡부평서울 여인숙 가격↷부평구로 마사지セ부평인천공항 마사지✖부평대전 모텔 가격↽부평부산 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. lovedonggu.xyz .

    부평출장맛사지⇥예약☎부평불광동 마사지『부평호텔식 마사지』◦﹝부평여자친구 마사지﹞♨부평거유 마사지▒부평고양이 변비 마사지♕부평경주 동천동 마사지ο부평경락 마사지⇃부평전립선 마사지 야동

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 시흥천안 조건 만남 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    부평출장맛사지☃예약금없는출장샵テ부평불광동 마사지『부평합성동 안마방』➻﹝부평조건﹞☋부평타이 마사지 팁▬부평암사동 마사지↔부평하단 안마방⇛부평마사지 가격╁부평수원역 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    부평출장맛사지✎예약☪부평불광동 마사지『부평전주 터미널 모텔』┼﹝부평타이마사지 서비스﹞←부평안마방 전화번호♀ 부평마사지 카드 단속✡부평상남동 안마방⇚부평fc2 일본 마사지◣부평부산 해운대 출장

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 목포일본마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The phyangdeok.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 창녕용인 수지 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    부평출장맛사지♭출장부르는법➸부평불광동 마사지『부평태국 아로마 마사지』◑﹝부평마사지 구분﹞┗부평카톡 조건⇜부평홍성 안마방ο부평구디 안마방★부평안마υ부평마사지 할인

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 구미출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 바카라사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and wonderlend.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    부평출장맛사지►예약금없는출장샵☂부평불광동 마사지『부평아산 마사지』⇅﹝부평용현동 마사지﹞⇩부평마사지 성추행♗부평한물간 연예인 안마방⇜부평부산 출장안마⇘부평안마방 건마↕부평여관 다방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    강원도토렌트 마사지
    온라인카지노 김천관평동 마사지 서울출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    부평출장맛사지μ출장부르는법◦부평불광동 마사지『부평성내동 안마방』◦﹝부평두피 마사지﹞ヘ부평태국 마사지 불법┓부평모란 안마방⇪부평유성 안마방 후기►부평일본야동 마사지☇부평fc2 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.부평출장맛사지부평수유역 마사지‿부평광양 마사지┏﹝부평서귀포 마사지﹞부평경주 안마방⇩부평안마방 애널┑부평출장마사지 후기▫부평대구 동대구역 모텔♧수원출장안마예약부평마사지 카운터 알바↾부평감성마사지란✌﹝부평태국 전립선 마사지﹞부평사당 마사지⇀부평강남역 안마방★부평천안 퇴폐↩부평화성 마사지☑부평출장맛사지동인천문산 안마방부평미금 안마방✓부평노량진 안마방✂『부평호치민 리버티 마사지』부평수내 마사지┘부평테크노폴리스 마사지✦부평타이마사지 가격╘부평얼굴 림프 마사지☺부평안마방 cctv♣부평자지 마사지┤<부평마사지 3만원>부평아침 안마방♬부평fc2 마사지☁부평소주잔 마사지➵부평마사지 영어☆부평콜걸만남❧부평선릉 안마방◦〈부평타이 출장 마사지〉부평포천 안마방►부평임산부 마사지⇔부평커플 마사지 후기υ부평러시아 안마방ღ부평노모 마사지✈부평선릉 안마방☀(부평마사지 발기)부평석계역 안마방◐부평마사지 gif↺부평안마방 가는법♨부평안마방 성병☊예약평창유성 안마방예약부평흑인 마사지☰부평안마방 오랄◈{부평안마방 백마}부평백석동 마사지❥부평진주시 안마방♡부평여성전용 안마방☇부평아로마 마사지 효능❈부평출장맛사지부평출장맛사지카지노사이트부평동해 마사지부평부산 안마방 후기부평대딸부평안마방 시스템부평출장맛사지부평성남 마사지┷부평아로마 마사지 뜻┐‹부평남순 마사지›부평괌 마사지✙부평양평 마사지◎부평응암 마사지ω부평부산 마사지ワ정선마사지 오일

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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